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Strategy Map

A Strategy Map is a diagram that is used to document the primary strategic goals being pursued by an organization or management team. It is an element of the documentation associated with the Balanced Scorecard, and in particular is characteristic of the second generation of Balanced Scorecard designs that first appeared during the mid-1990s. The [...]

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Value Mapping

The Value Mapping method by Andrew Jack is a second generation Performance Management model, trying to avoid some of the weaknesses of existing frameworks. Performance Management As a result of the performance measurement revolution many organizations have numerous measures of performance. However often with significant weaknesses in the way that these measures are identified, integrated, [...]

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Customer Satisfaction Model (Kano Model)

The Customer Satisfaction Model from Noriaki Kano, also aptly called Kano Model, is a quality management and marketing technique that can be used for measuring client happiness. It is a business framework of product development and customer satisfaction that classifies customer preferences into five categories. Kano’s model of customer satisfaction distinguishes six categories of quality [...]

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Service Profit Chain

The Service Profit Chain establishes relationships between profitability, customer loyalty, and employee satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity. The links in the chain (which should be regarded as propositions) are as follows: Profit and growth are stimulated primarily by customer loyalty. Loyalty is a direct result of customer satisfaction. Satisfaction is largely influenced by the value of [...]

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Value Profit Chain

With their Value Profit Chain model, James Heskett, Earl Sasser and Leonard Schlesinger argue that organizations need to focus on providing what their employees, customers, investors, suppliers, and others value most. Focusing on value will bring about necessary organizational change, and tying an organization to the most valued needs of its customers will make it [...]

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Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans’ innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth [...]

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Theory of Constraints

The Theory of Constraints (TOC) is a management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints. There is always at least one constraint, and TOC uses a focusing process to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the organization around [...]

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Attribution Theory

Attribution Theory is a field of social psychology, which was born out of the theoretical models of Fritz Heider, Harold Kelley, Edward E. Jones, and Lee Ross. Attribution Theory is concerned with the ways in which people explain (or attribute) the behavior of others. It explores how individuals “attribute” causes to events and how this [...]

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Performance Prism

The Performance Prism (Cranfield University) is an innovative performance measurement and Performance Management framework of the second generation. Its advantage over other frameworks is that it covers all stakeholders of an organization. Principally investors, customers & intermediaries, employees, suppliers, regulators and communities. It does this in two ways: by considering what the wants and the [...]

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Organizational Configuration

The organizational configurations framework of Henry Mintzberg describes six valid organizational setups.   Mintzberg is a renowned academic and author on business and management. He is currently the Cleghorn Professor of Management Studies at the Desautels Faculty of Management of McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where he has been teaching since 1968. Valid Organizational Configurations [...]

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