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OODA Loop

The OODA loop (for Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act) is a concept originally applied to the combat operations process, often at the strategic level in military operations. It is now also often applied to understand commercial operations and learning processes. The concept was developed by military strategist and USAF Colonel John Boyd.  Although the OODA [...]

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Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans’ innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth [...]

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Ten Schools of Thought

The Ten Schools of Thought model from Henry Mintzberg is a business framework that can be used to categorize the field of Strategic Management. The Design School. This school sees strategy formation as a process of conception. Approach: Clear and unique strategies are formulated in a deliberate process. In this process, the internal situation of [...]

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Theory of Constraints

The Theory of Constraints (TOC) is a management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints. There is always at least one constraint, and TOC uses a focusing process to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the organization around [...]

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Attribution Theory

Attribution Theory is a field of social psychology, which was born out of the theoretical models of Fritz Heider, Harold Kelley, Edward E. Jones, and Lee Ross. Attribution Theory is concerned with the ways in which people explain (or attribute) the behavior of others. It explores how individuals “attribute” causes to events and how this [...]

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Performance Prism

The Performance Prism (Cranfield University) is an innovative performance measurement and Performance Management framework of the second generation. Its advantage over other frameworks is that it covers all stakeholders of an organization. Principally investors, customers & intermediaries, employees, suppliers, regulators and communities. It does this in two ways: by considering what the wants and the [...]

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Organizational Configuration

The organizational configurations framework of Henry Mintzberg describes six valid organizational setups.   Mintzberg is a renowned academic and author on business and management. He is currently the Cleghorn Professor of Management Studies at the Desautels Faculty of Management of McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where he has been teaching since 1968. Valid Organizational Configurations [...]

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Bases of Social Power

Social psychologists John French and Bertram Raven first introduced five bases of power: Coercive, Reward, Legitimate, Referent, and Expert. This was followed by Raven’s identification of a sixth separate and distinct base of power: Informational. Informational was previously within the scope of Expert. As we know, leadership and power are closely linked. This model shows [...]

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Change Approaches

The Six Change Approaches of John Kotter is a business framework to prevent, decrease or minimize resistance to change in organizations.  Kotter is a former professor at the Harvard Business School, an author, and now Chief Innovation Officer at Kotter International. He is regarded as an authority on leadership and change. Reasons for resistance to [...]

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Twelve Principles of the Network Economy

In a superb and revolutionary article in Wired, Kevin Kelly described the Twelve Principles of the Network Economy.  (Read New Rules of the New Economy here.) According to Kelly, the emerging new economy represents a tectonic upheaval in our commonwealth, a social shift that rearranges our lives. More than mere hardware or software ever can. [...]

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